A preposition is a word that tells you how words are related in a sentence. It could often follow a verb, but it does not always. The example of the frog and a log can tell you a lot of them, but those are only one of two categories of prepositions.
In fact, there are two types of prepositions: ones that tell about the place and ones that tell about time and time order.
Prepositional Phrase With BY
|By (any) chance||By accident|
|By air||By air/ sea/ land|
|By all accounts||By all means|
|By any standard||By appointment|
|By auction||By birth|
|By bus/ train/ plane||By chance|
|By check||By cheque|
|By coincidence||By courtesy of|
|By day/ night||By definition|
|By degrees||By design|
|By desing||By dint of|
|By far||By force|
|By hand||By heart|
|By invitation||By land|
|By law||By luck|
|By marriage||By means of|
|By mistake||By my watch|
|By nature||By no means|
|By now||By oneself|
|By one’s side||By order of|
|By phone||By post|
|By process of||By profession|
|By reason of||By request|
|By rights||By sea|
|By sight||By surprise|
|By the arm/ hand||By the name of|
|By the side of||By the time|
|By the way||By virtue of|
|By way of||By word of mouth|
Prepositional Phrase Examples with BY
- The discovery was made almost by accident.
- They detect the presence of carrion by sight.
- The band are playing this song by request of the Queen.
- The boss retains enormous influence by reason of his position.
- They like to do business by phone / over the phone.
- The policeman took the burglar by surprise as he opened the window.
- Admission to the exhibition will be by invitation only.
- The law firm is all-female, though not by design.
- Payments can be made by cheque or in cash.
- By all accounts he leads a life of considerable luxury.
- George I and George II were Germans by birth.
- The property can only be viewed by appointment.
- A clinic for women would, by definition, deal with pregnancy and childbirth.
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES WITH BY MEANING AND EXAMPLES
|By accident||Unintentionally; by chance||I found my ring by accident when tidying the wardrobe.|
|By all accounts||According to what people say||I’ve made enquiries, and by all accounts this is the best hotel in the area.|
|By all means||Of course; certainly||If you’d like a copy you may have one by all means.|
|By and by||After a short while; eventually||You will get used to the lifestyle by and by.|
|By and large||In general; on the whole||By and large our trip was very enjoyable.|
|By appointment||You must arrange a time beforehand||In the off-season you can visit the castle by appointment.|
|By chance||Unintentionally; without plan or intent||He met her by chance in a bookshop.|
|By degrees||Gradually; little by little||She adapted to her new environment by degrees.|
|By hand||By a person, not a machine||The dresses and jackets are embroidered by hand.|
|By heart||By memorisation||At school we had to learn multiplication tables by heart.|
|By invitation (only)||Only possible if you receive an invitation.||It’s strictly private. Membership is by invitation only.|
|By law||A rule that is legally imposed.||Restaurants are required by law to display their prices outside.|
|By mistake||Not deliberately; in error.||The letter was sent by mistake to the wrong address.|
|By nature||Inborn or hereditary characteristics||She is optimistic by nature. She always sees the bright side of things.|
|By no means||Not at all||It is by no means easy to adapt to a new country.|
|By now||Before this moment||Dad’s getting worried. Lucy should be home by now.|