Interjection in English

Interjection


What are interjections in grammar?


An interjection is a kind of exclamation inserted into regular speech. Actually, it is a brief and abrupt pause in speech for expressing emotions.

They are included in a sentence to express a sentiment such as surprise, disgust, joy, excitement, or enthusiasm.

An interjection is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.

Interjections are unique and have some interesting features:

  • Interjections don’t have a grammatical function in sentence construction.
  • They usually cannot be modified or inflected.
  • They do not have to have a relation to the other parts of the sentence.
  • They are highly context-sensitive.


Types of Interjections


Interjections are typically divided into three categories: emotive, volitive, and cognitive.

  • Emotive express the feelings of a speaker, like anger, fear, surprise, and disgust (“Rats!”, or “Oh!”, or “Huh?”, or “Blech!”, respectively),
  • Cognitive – express the understanding of information by the speaker, or internal reaction to information (“Ohh”, “I see”, “Aha!”, and “Wow”), and
  • Volitive – are used as imperative or directive speech, meant to instruct or command others to do something (“Look!”, “Listen”, “Shh!”, “Look out!”).

Examples of interjections

  • “Oops! I did it again!”
  • “Ooh, what a lovely dress!”
  • “Yahoo, we did it!”
  • “Shh, I can’t hear what he’s saying.”
  • “We’ve done it! Hurrah!”
  • “Bravo, Rena! You’re right.”
  • “Well, so Steve got the job?”
  • “Oh, how wonderful!”


Interjections mainly have four rules:


Rule 1: Interjections express a sudden mood, emotions, and feeling with emphasis. There also are many taboo words that are usually utilized in everyday conversation but not in formal aspects. These words fall under the category of interjections.

Example:

  •  Wow! That’s a surprising scene.
  • Aw, I didn’t want him to return.
  • What? You never told me that!

Rule 2 : Some interjections interrupt a conversation or an idea or hold someone’s attention for a flash . These are just sounds, not words because these sounds don’t make any sense.

Example:

  • Your, um, shirt has a stain on the back.
  • I want to, uh, ask you out on a date.

Rule 3: Some interjections express only yes or no.

Example:

  • Nah, we aren’t going.
  • Yes! I will most definitely do it.

Rule 4:  Some interjections are wont to get someone’s attention.

Example:

  • Yo, Alex! Get in the car!
  • Hey! Will you give me that ball?


Interjections for Greeting

Definition: Interjections for greeting are used to greet any person.

Example:

  • Hi! How is your health now?
  • Hello! How are you, Peter?
  • Hey! Where are you going?
  • Hi! How’s your business going on?
  • Hello! Is there anyone here?
  • Hey! You must be kidding.
  • Hello! Jack, after such a long time we have met.
  • Hey! Don’t be so hopeless.
  • Hey! Listen to me.
  • Hi! How’s everyone at home?
  • Hello! I am talking to you.
  • Hi! Are you new here?
  • Hey! Why are you so worried?
  • Hi! Come here.
  • Hello! What has brought you here?
  • Hey! Why are you feeling so helpless?
  • Hey! Don’t be so rude.
  • Hi! Have you done the assignment?
  • Hey! Are you going?
  • Hi! Take your sit.


Interjections for joy

Definition: Interjections for joy express happiness or joy.

Example:

  • Wow! The scenery is so eye-catching.
  • Wow! The house is so well decorated.
  • Wow! The movie was marvelous.
  • Wow! The program is magnificent.
  • Wow! The dress is so gorgeous.
  • Wow! The bird is so beautiful.
  • Wow! The song is so melodious.
  • Wow! The painting is mind-blowing.
  • Wow! The bungalow is so huge.
  • Wow! The actor’s performance was brilliant.
  • Yippee! We are going to the concert.
  • Yippee! We are going to the Cineplex to enjoy the movie.
  • Yippee! We are going to the fair.
  • Yippee! We are going for a picnic.
  • Hurray! My poem is published in the magazine.
  • Hurray! I have won the first prize.
  • Hurray! My article is published in the magazine.
  • Hurray! My team has won the tournament.
  • Hurray! I have won the lottery.
  • Hurray! I have stood first in the test.


Interjections for Surprise

Definition: Interjections for surprise express an intense sense of surprise on the happening of something.

Example:

  • What! You have broken the show-piece.
  • What! You did not sit for the exam.
  • What! You are playing on the field now.
  • What! Ben is not coming.
  • What! Allen denied doing the task.
  • What! Albert is not performing.
  • Eh! You have done a mess.
  • Eh! You have spoiled the dish.
  • Hey! Are you sure about it?
  • Hey! What have you done?
  • Oh! What a hot and humid day!
  • Oh! You shouldn’t have done it.
  • Oh! What will happen now?
  • Oh! The movie is too long.
  • Oh! Don’t say that you have done it.
  • Oh! What a glorious victory!
  • Oh! What a heavenly beautiful scenery!
  • Ah! You have done a blunder.
  • Ah! What have you done?
  • Ah! John has spoiled our plan.


Interjections for Attention

Definition: Interjections for attention draw the attention of the listeners.

Example:

  • Listen! You will prepare the design.
  • Listen! Be careful the next time.
  • Listen! Don’t be so careless.
  • Listen! Don’t smoke here.
  • Listen! Don’t make any noise.
  • Listen! Don’t leave the place before 5 pm.
  • Listen! You will send me the report.
  • Look! The artist is coming.
  • Look! Who is coming?
  • Look! The actor is coming.
  • Look! The picture is so nice.
  • Look! The doctor is coming.
  • Look! The lawyer has come.
  • Look! The Professor has arrived.
  • Hush! Someone is coming.
  • Hush! Keep quiet.
  • Hush! Don’t talk too much.
  • Hush! Don’t utter a single word.
  • Hush! You cannot use any slang here.
  • Behold! The scenery is so beautiful.


Interjections for Grief/Pain

Definition: Interjections for grief/pain express an intense sense of grief/ pain in any unfortunate event.

Example:

  • Ah! Our team lost the match.
  • Ah! Our plan has failed.
  • Ah! The project turned into a failure.
  • Ah! The program was boring.
  • Ah! The plan did not work.
  • Ah! Allen has broken his hand.
  • Ah! Aric has broken his leg.
  • Ah! Bob has met with an accident.
  • What a pity! You have lost your tab.
  • Ouch! I hurt my ankle.
  • Ouch! I have hurt my knee.
  • Ouch! I have fallen down.
  • Ouch! I have hurt my toe.
  • Ouch! I hurt my wrist.
  • Ouch! I hurt my elbow.
  • Oh! The story was really sad.
  • Oh! The man is so weak.
  • Oh! Two of our team members are sick.
  • Alas! John’s father died yesterday.
  • Alas! Andrew’s uncle died yesterday.


Interjections for Approval

Definition: Interjections for approval express an intense approval on something that has occurred.

Example:

  • Well done! You have done a good job.
  • Well done! You acted really well.
  • Well done! You painted really good.
  • Well done! Your design is beautiful.
  • Well done! You have got the highest marks.
  • Bravo! John has taken a wicket.
  • Bravo! Richard has scored a goal.
  • Well done! You sang really well.
  • Yummy! The cake is so delicious.
  • Yummy! The pudding is really tasty.
  • Yummy! I loved your cooking.
  • Bravo! Lisa has won the quiz contest.
  • Bravo! Jeff has stood first.
  • Bravo! Alice has got the highest marks.
  • Bravo! Allen has become the highest scorer.
  • Brilliant! Your writing is flawless.
  • Brilliant! Your article is so helpful.
  • Brilliant! Your plan is outstanding.
  • Splendid! I like your work.
  • Splendid! I like your design.

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